El modelo de ciudades turísticas a debate: Seguridad, turistificación y marca territorio

Video UNIA Ciudades turísticas a debate. Turismo sostenible

Presentación de la ponencia “Málaga internacional: UNITAR y el Foro para la Paz en el Mediterráneo”

Texto de la ponencia “Málaga internacional: UNITAR y el Foro para la Paz en el Mediterráneo

Trasnparencias de la Ponencia “Turismo y Seguridad” de Rafael Vidal Delgado

Texto de la ponencia “Turismo y Seguridad” de Rafael Vidal Delgado

Transparencias de la ponencia “Turismo y seguridad”, de Manuel Rios

Información de la Universidad Internacional de Andalucía:

Información de la UNIA


Joint Statement on the Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan


  1. We, the Heads of State and Government of the nations contributing to the Resolute Support Mission, and the President of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, met today in Brussels to reaffirm our shared commitment to Afghanistan’s long-term security and stability. The people of Afghanistan demand peace and we are encouraged by the momentum building in that direction. We remain united in our commitment to help Afghanistan attain it.
  2. We pay tribute to the sacrifice and resilience of the Afghan people who have wanted peace for many years, and to the men and women serving in the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces1 and in the Resolute Support Mission. We honour all those who have lost their lives or have been wounded in support of a better future for Afghanistan that is free from terrorism.
  3. Our shared aim remains a stable and secure Afghanistan that will never again serve as a safe haven for terrorists who threaten our shared security. Allies and Operational Partners reaffirm their commitment to the Resolute Support Mission, which trains, advises and assists the Afghan forces at the invitation of the Afghan government and with the support of the International Community as noted in UN Security Council Resolution 2189. Effective, professional, and self-sustaining Afghan forces will be better able to provide security for the country, create the conditions for a negotiated resolution of the conflict through an Afghan-led and Afghan-owned peace process, and demonstrate to the Taliban that it cannot prevail through force. We welcome the progress the Afghan security institutions are making as a result of Resolute Support’s capacity-building efforts, and the Afghan-led institutional reforms which are resulting in strengthened professionalism and increased effectiveness on the battlefield. We reiterate our support for the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces Roadmap.
  4. A political solution to the conflict with the Taliban, based on national consensus, will be essential in order to achieve sustainable stability and security. NATO Allies and Operational Partners welcome the Afghan government’s unprecedented offer of unconditional peace talks to the Taliban. We fully support the Afghan government’s aim of reaching an inclusive peace agreement with the Taliban, and note with particular appreciation the outcomes of the Kabul Process for Peace and Security Cooperation conference in Afghanistan on 28 February, and the Tashkent Conference on Afghanistan held on 26-27 March. We also commend the Afghan government’s commitment to demonstrate the benefits of peace, and its determination to advance the peace process and reduce violence through its announcement of a unilateral cease-fire in June. We note that the Taliban participated in the Eid al-Fitr cease-fire. Their leadership’s rejection of the extension proposed by the Afghan government will only result in harm to innocent Afghan citizens.
  5. We reiterate our call to the Taliban to engage credibly in the Afghan-led and Afghan-owned peace process and stress that this is the only pathway to a sustainable resolution of the conflict. NATO Allies and Operational Partners will respect and support a negotiated and durable political settlement led by Afghans which ends violence, cuts ties to terrorism and protects the human rights of all Afghan citizens, notably those of women and children. We also support the Afghan government’s intention to address all contested issues between the parties, including those relating to the future military role of the international community in Afghanistan.
  6. NATO Allies and Operational Partners strongly support the Afghan government’s determination to eliminate the threat of terrorism in all its forms, including that posed by ISIS/Daesh affiliates and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. The improvements to the Afghan forces will bolster their ability to combat those terrorist groups that pose a threat to us all.
  7. We reiterate the importance of good and inclusive governance, institution building, as well as social and economic development. The upcoming Geneva ministerial conference on Afghanistan in November 2018 will be an important opportunity to review the progress achieved, particularly the Afghan government’s commitment to accountability and reforms, and to underscore the International Community’s continued commitment to development assistance.
  8. A stable Afghanistan is in our interest and that of the entire region. Regional actors have a significant role to play in achieving peace and stabilisation in Afghanistan by fully supporting a negotiated political solution, by not lending any form of support to the insurgency, by improving conditions for Afghan economic development, and by working with the Afghan government to combat terrorism. We encourage Pakistan to continue to act on its stated support for a political solution to the conflict, to close terrorist sanctuaries and to work to prevent terrorist financial flows and cross-border attacks, including by working with its neighbours. In this regard, we welcome the finalisation of the Afghanistan-Pakistan Action Plan for Peace and Solidarity. We call on regional actors to contribute to regional stability by fully supporting an Afghan-led and Afghan-owned peace process. NATO Allies and Partners will continue to engage constructively at the regional level.
  9. We welcome Qatar and the United Arab Emirates who are joining the Resolute Support Mission and we encourage other interested countries to contribute. This reflects the broad and continuing support by the International Community for Afghanistan’s stability, also including through the International Contact Group.
  10. NATO Allies and Operational Partners have increased force-levels to maximise theability to train, advise and assist the Afghan forces, and we announce today that we have committed to:
    • sustain the non-combat Resolute Support Mission that delivers training, advice and assistance to the Afghan security institutions and forces until conditions indicate a change in the mission is appropriate;
    • extend financial sustainment of the Afghan forces through 2024; and
    • make further progress on developing our political and practical partnership with Afghanistan, including through the Enduring Partnership.
  11. For its part Afghanistan, with the continued support of NATO Allies and Operational Partners, building on progress already made, commits to:
    • further strengthen the Afghan security institutions and forces, ensuring that they: provide security for the Afghan people; operate under effective civilian leadership complying in full with international humanitarian law; respect human rights; and act in accordance with the Afghan constitution and the rule of law;
    • continue to combat corruption, including in security structures as described in the roadmap as well as other government structures;
    • demonstrate further progress on governmental reforms such as merit-based promotion and fulfill agreed conditions related to financial support; and promote transparency, accountability and inclusivity;
    • organize and hold credible, free, fair, and inclusive parliamentary elections in 2018 and presidential elections in 2019 and vigorously address remaining organizational challenges with full respect to the independence of electoral institutions;
    • steadily increase its share of funding for the Afghan forces in furtherance of the commitments made at the Chicago Summit with the aim of attaining self-sufficiency, while recognizing that this will take some time to achieve;
    • countering narcotics trafficking;
    • promote job creation, and improve economic opportunities and service delivery to Afghan citizens;
    • build on recent efforts to empower women to participate fully in all aspects of Afghan society, including in the Afghan forces, as well as in political processes, including peace and reconciliation, and abide by commitments to fully implement Afghanistan’s National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325;
    • take further steps to protect children from the damaging effects of armed conflict and from violations of their rights, as required by UNSCR 1612 and other relevant UN Security Council resolutions, as well as ensuring the protection of civilians.
  12. Further progress on the commitments outlined above will curb violence, improve economic prospects, help set social, security and economic conditions for long-term stability and have an important impact on migration. We are encouraged by progress in Afghanistan and we will not waver in our support to the development of Afghan forces that can keep the country stable, secure, and safe from the threat of terrorism.  As we do that work, we look forward to the initiation of an inclusive,negotiated peace agreement with the Taliban that will be a victory for all Afghans.
  1. Referred to hereafter as ‘Afghan forces’.

Chairman’s statement on NATO-Ukraine following the meeting of the North Atlantic Council with Georgia and Ukraine at the Brussels Summit

Se pueden exponer las mismas consideraciones que en el enlace:

NATO-Georgia Commission Declaration at the Brussels Summit

  1. NATO Heads of State and Government met today with the President of Ukraine, Petro Poroshenko, to reaffirm their joint commitment to further develop their Distinctive Partnership and its contribution to a peaceful, stable and undivided Europe. They discussed the conflict in eastern Ukraine, where, for more than four years, Ukraine has defended itself against Russia’s aggressive actions. Allies expressed their unwavering support for Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders, and its right to decide on its future and foreign policy course free from outside interference, as set out in the Helsinki Final Act. NATO and Ukraine continue to call on Russia to reverse its illegal and illegitimate annexation of the Crimean peninsula, which they do not and will not recognize. NATO and Allies remain committed to providing continued support to Ukraine’s reform agenda in the security and defence sector, including through the Comprehensive Assistance Package (CAP).
  2. In light of Ukraine’s restated aspirations for NATO membership, NATO stands by its decisions taken at the Bucharest Summit and subsequent Summits. Allies encouraged Ukraine to make the best use of the tools available under the NATO-Ukraine Commission, in particular the Annual National Programme (ANP). They welcomed significant reform progress already made, in particular with the recent adoption of the Law on the High Anti-Corruption Court and the Law on National Security. The latter Law is a welcome and important step forward in bringing Ukraine’s security and defence sector closer to Euro-Atlantic standards and practices. Allies urged Ukraine to implement the provisions of the Law in order to strengthen civilian control and democratic oversight over the security and defence sector in Ukraine, to build further capacity in command and control, planning and budgeting processes, improve military education, as well as ensure the timely reform of its security services. With regard to the Law on Education adopted by the Rada in September 2017, Allies urged Ukraine to fully implement the recommendations and conclusions of the Opinion of the Venice Commission; Ukraine has stated its willingness to do so.  Allies looked forward to further progress in Ukraine’s efforts to overcome significant remaining challenges and ensure the full implementation and sustainability of ambitious but necessary reforms. The success of Ukraine’s reforms, including combating corruption and promoting an inclusive electoral process, based on democratic values, respect for human rights, minorities and the rule of law, will be crucial in laying the groundwork for a prosperous and peaceful Ukraine firmly anchored among European democracies.
  3. Heads of State and Government welcomed progress in the implementation of the CAP over the last two years and its contribution to improving Ukraine’s defence capacity and interoperability. They also welcomed the capacity building in strategic communications, as well as progress in joint projects on logistics and standardization, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD)/counter-improvised explosive devices (C-IED) and the implementation of new measures to assist Ukraine in ensuring the safety of its ammunition depots. Projects aimed at bolstering Ukraine’s cyber defences, telemedicine and radioactive waste disposal were also completed successfully. The NATO-Ukraine Table Top Exercise made an important contribution to improving the resilience of Ukraine’s critical energy infrastructure. NATO facilitated the participation of a Ukrainian team of wounded servicemen and women in the “Invictus Games” in Toronto in 2017. NATO and Ukraine will step up activities under the Platform on Countering Hybrid Warfare to strengthen Ukraine’s ability to repeal hybrid attacks on its territory.
  4. Allies and Ukraine condemned the human rights abuses and discrimination practices by the Russian de-facto authorities against the residents of the illegally annexed Crimean peninsula, including the Crimean Tatars, as well as Ukrainians and persons belonging to other ethnic, political and religious groups. They called on Russia and its de-facto authorities to grant international monitoring organisations access to Crimea and to release Ukrainian prisoners and hostages detained in Russia, Crimea and the areas of eastern Ukraine controlled by the Russia-backed militants.  The leaders of NATO nations and Ukraine also expressed their concern about the use of torture and the transfer of Ukrainian citizens to prisons in Russia. Russia’s ongoing militarization of Crimea, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov poses further threats to Ukraine’s independence and undermines the stability of the broader region. Leaders condemned Russia’s construction and partial opening of the Kerch Strait bridge between Russia and the illegally annexed Crimea, which represents another violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, including the infringement of its navigational rights in its territorial waters.
  5. The ongoing armed conflict in eastern Ukraine, instigated and perpetuated by Russia, remains a major challenge to Euro-Atlantic security, and has produced a humanitarian catastrophe in the Donbas. This has led to the loss of more than 10,000 lives and displaced over 1.5 million Ukrainian citizens. Allies and Ukraine reaffirmed their support for the settlement of the conflict by diplomatic means in accordance with the Minsk Agreements and welcomed the efforts of the Normandy format in this regard. They urged all parties to comply fully with the commitments to which they signed up. Russia, as a party to the Minsk Agreements, bears significant responsibility in this regard. NATO and Ukraine called on Russia to withdraw its forces and to cease all political, financial and military support to the Russian-led militants in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions.
  6. NATO leaders and Ukraine stressed that ensuring a comprehensive ceasefire, the withdrawal of heavy weapons, the effective monitoring and verification by the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission (SMM), the withdrawal of Russian-backed formations and heavy military equipment, as well as the disarmament of illegal groups remain the first necessary steps to de-escalate the conflict. The SMM must be allowed to fulfill its mandate and have full, safe and unhindered access throughout Ukraine, including the Ukraine-Russia state border. NATO and Ukraine called on Russia to return to the Joint Centre for Control and Coordination (JCCC) in order to ensure the facilitation of local ceasefires.
  7. In this context, the Heads of State and Government of NATO and Ukraine took note of the recent discussions in the Normandy format on the way towards the full implementation of the Minsk agreements.  They also discussed the prospects for a possible UN-authorized peacekeeping force in the Donbas. They emphasized that it should support and facilitate the full implementation of the Minsk agreements with a robust mandate to ensure area security throughout the entire conflict zone, up to and including the Ukrainian-Russian border.
  8. Allies and Ukraine are concerned by the continued attempts by the Russian Federation to further destabilize Ukraine including the threat of the use of force, disinformation, cyber-attacks, energy blackmail, and interference in Ukraine’s sovereign institutional and electoral processes.  They call on Russia to desist from such actions.
  9. NATO highly values Ukraine’s significant contributions to Allied operations, the NATO Response force and NATO exercises.  Allies welcomed Ukraine’s decision to increase its contribution to the Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan and the NATO Response Force.  These contributions testify to Ukraine’s continued commitment to Euro-Atlantic security and increase the level of interoperability of the Armed Forces of Ukraine with NATO.  Allies acknowledged Ukraine’s interest in the enhanced opportunities within the Partnership Interoperability Initiative.  NATO will consider this in view of the decisions taken at the Wales and Warsaw Summits.
  10. An independent, sovereign and stable Ukraine, firmly committed to democracy and the rule of law, is key to security in the Euro-Atlantic area, of which – as stated in the Charter on Distinctive Partnership – Ukraine is an inseparable part.

NATO-Georgia Commission Declaration at the Brussels Summit

Georgia tiene dos partes de su territorio: Abjasia y Osetia del Sur, independientes de facto del gobierno georgiano y apoyado por Rusia.

Para ampliar esta apreciación se puede consultar el libro publicado por el Foro, en el siguiente enlace:

La OTAN y el terrorismo, por Rafael Vidal

  1. We, NATO Heads of State and Government and Georgia, met in Brussels today to discuss security, defence reform, and cooperation.  Allies congratulate the people of Georgia on the centennial anniversary of their independence.  Allies and Georgia emphasize the unique scope and depth of Georgia’s relationship with the Alliance.  Allies welcome the substantial progress on reforms in Georgia over the past decade in consolidating its democracy and achieving stronger economic development, more effective defence institutions and modernized armed forces.  Georgia is committed to continue implementing these reforms.
  2. Georgia is one of the Alliance’s closest operational partners, and an Enhanced Opportunities Partner.  Allies highly appreciate Georgia’s steadfast support for NATO’s operations and missions, in particular its contribution to the NATO Response Force and its significant contribution to the Resolute Support Mission (RSM).  Georgia is one of the largest troop contributors to RSM. We recognize the sacrifices and contributions the Georgian people have made to our shared security. These efforts, along with Georgia’s participation in EU-led operations, demonstrate Georgia’s commitment and capability to contribute to Euro-Atlantic security.
  3. NATO Heads of State and Government and Georgia welcome our expanding practical cooperation, in particular under the umbrella of the Substantial NATO-Georgia Package (SNGP), to which all Allies contribute, as well as Finland and Sweden.  The SNGP is bolstering Georgia’s defence reform efforts, its interoperability with NATO, and Georgia’s resilience.  Allies commend Georgia on its commitment to implementation of the SNGP across the full spectrum of Georgia’s defence and security sector reforms.  We welcome the overall progress made, including the close cooperation that has developed between NATO and the Georgian defence institutions, such as the mentoring relationship of the Joint Force Training Centre in Bydgoszcz with the NATO-Georgia Joint Training and Evaluation Centre (JTEC), the Defence Institution Building School, as well as Georgia’s participation in exercises. NATO and Georgia are ready to further enhance cooperation, including through the next NATO-Georgia exercise in March 2019, which Allies will support with broad participation. We are moving ahead with the establishment of secure communications with Georgia and stepping up our support in the area of counter-mobility.  We welcome our dialogue on hybrid threats and resilience.  We will consider further enhancement of cooperation in cyber defence to further strengthen interoperability.
  4. NATO Heads of State and Government value Georgia’s engagement in, and contributions to, strategic discussion and mutual awareness on Black Sea security. We pledge to further develop dialogue and practical cooperation in this context, including through the SNGP.  A number of new steps have already been initiated in this regard.  We welcome Georgia’s offers to provide further logistical support to NATO and Allies, the start of training of Georgian Coast Guard boarding teams, the enhanced interaction between Georgia and NATO’s Standing Naval Forces, including through passage exercises and port calls, and the exchanges between Georgia’s Joint Maritime Operations Centre and the NATO Shipping Centre.  Allies intend to assist Georgia in the extension of its air and maritime picture.  We also look forward to Georgia’s future participation in Operation Sea Guardian.
  5. NATO Heads of State and Government welcome the clear progress made by Georgia on defence spending and in implementing comprehensive reforms aimed at strengthening Georgia’s defence and resilience capabilities.
  6. Georgia reaffirms its determination to achieve NATO membership, one of its top foreign and security policy priorities, which is backed by strong public support, and is now also enshrined in its new Constitution.  Allies reiterate their decision made at the 2008 Bucharest Summit that Georgia will become a member of the Alliance, with MAP as an integral part of the process; they reaffirm all elements of that decision, as well as subsequent decisions.  They welcome the significant progress made since 2008. Georgia’s relationship with the Alliance contains all the practical tools to prepare for eventual membership, in particular the NATO-Georgia Commission, the Annual National Programme and the Substantial NATO-Georgia Package. Allies recognize the significant progress on reforms which Georgia has made and must continue, which are helping Georgia, an aspirant country, progress in its preparations towards membership, and which strengthen Georgia’s defence and interoperability capabilities with the Alliance.  
  7. NATO Heads of State and Government reiterate our full support for Georgia’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders.  We call on Russia to reverse its recognition of the so-called independence of the Georgian regions of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali/South Ossetia. We condemn the grave human rights violations taking place in these regions, their militarization, as well as other activities such as the construction of barbed wire fences and other artificial border-like obstacles along the Administrative Boundary Line.  These steps violate Georgia’s sovereignty and territorial integrity and blatantly contradict the principles of international law, OSCE principles and Russia’s international commitments.  We further call on Russia to implement the EU-mediated 12 August 2008 Ceasefire Agreement, in particular to withdraw its forces from the territory of Georgia, which are present without Georgia’s consent, and allow the creation of an international security arrangement on the ground.  We welcome Georgia’s compliance with the Ceasefire Agreement and its commitment on non-use of force and call on Russia to reciprocate. We also support Georgia’s efforts toward engagement and confidence building and welcome the Georgian Government’s new peace initiative “A step to a Better Future” to improve the lives of the people living in the Abkhazia and Tskhinvali/South Ossetia regions of Georgia.  Allies express firm support to the Geneva International Discussions, co-chaired by the EU, UN and OSCE, and underline the utmost need for reaching tangible results on the core issues of the negotiations with the aim to pursue peaceful conflict resolution within the internationally recognized borders of Georgia.
  8. Our meeting, marking the tenth anniversary of the NATO-Georgia Commission (NGC), demonstrates the depth, breadth and enduring nature of the NATO-Georgia relationship.  Looking ahead, we expect the NGC to continue to play a central role in deepening political dialogue and enhancing practical cooperation between Georgia and the Alliance.