La vicesecretaria general de la OTAN visita Azerbaiyán para asistir a una importante conferencia sobre la mujer, la paz y la seguridad

Group photo at the NATO/EAPC High Level Conference on Women, Peace and Security

La conferencia, organizada conjuntamente por la OTAN y Azerbaiyán, es la primera desde que los líderes de la OTAN acordaron una Política y un Plan de Acción de Mujeres, Paz y Seguridad revisados en la Cumbre de Bruselas en julio de 2018.

” Integración, inclusión e integridad. Estas serán las palabras de advertencia a medida que avanzamos en nuestra agenda para hacer de la igualdad de género una realidad cotidiana para las mujeres y las niñas de todo el mundo, ” dijo la vicesecretaria general en su discurso.

NATO Update. 21.09.2018. Leer más

Se adjunta un mapa del Cáucaso, con objeto de comprobar la ubicación de Azerbaijan con respecto al mar Caspio y a Rusia:

 

La vicesecretaria general de la OTAN, Rose Gottemoeller, visita Georgia

Joint press conference with NATO Deputy Secretary General Rose Gottemoeller and the First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Georgia, David Dondua

NATO Deputy Secretary General Rose Gottemoeller is in Tbilisi today (21 September 2018) to reaffirm NATO’s strong commitment to Georgia.

NATO Update. 21.09.2018. Leer más

NOTA DE LA REDACCIÓN:

Se remite un mapa de la región del Caúcaso, en donde se encuentra Georgia, a cuyo gobierno se le “han independizado” tres partes de su territorio. Si entra en la OTAN y se declara que son partes del mismo, solicitando el apoyo de toda la Alianza, se podría crear un problema grave.

Es una de las “amenazas” que más “siente” Putin.

Texto de octubre de 2015

NATO Update de 24.08.2018

Commander-designate of NATO Mission Iraq announced

Canada’s Department of National Defence announced on Wednesday (22 August 2018) that Major-General Dany Fortin has been selected to lead the new NATO Mission Iraq. Launched at the Brussels Summit in July, the mission builds on NATO’s efforts to train the Iraqi forces as they work to prevent the re-emergence of ISIS and other terrorist groups. Led by Canada, NATO’s non-combat mission will include hundreds of trainers, and will also involve setting up military schools to increase the professionalism of the Iraqi forces.

Allies to receive first shipment of Precision Guided Munitions acquired through NATO

Today (22 August 2018), the NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) received the first lot of Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs) acquired through a NATO project involving 11 Allies and one NATO partner.

NATO and Japan conduct exercise in the Baltic Sea

Naval forces from Standing NATO Maritime Group One conducted a passing exercise with a Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force squadron in the Baltic Sea on Tuesday (21 August 2018). NATO ships sailed alongside cadet training vessel JS Kashima and destroyer JS Makinami for the drills.

Marines advise Afghan partners in Sangin

U.S. Marine Corps advisors with Task Force Southwest and Afghan National Army (ANA) soldiers with 2nd Brigade, Afghan National Army 215th Corps, partnered for an advisory mission at Camp Nolay in Sangin district, August 1-16. (Courtesy of Resolute Support Mission)

Belgium and Germany to take over NATO’s Baltic Air Policing

The 48th rotation of detachments contributing to NATO’s Baltic Air Policing mission is imminent. From September 2018, the Belgian Air Force will take the lead over the mission at Šiauliai, Lithuania, while the German Air Force will augment out of Ämari, Estonia. (Courtesy of Allied Air Command)

Infraestructura Crítica, sector de la Energía: La Seguridad Energética

Seguridad energética: una preocupación fundamental para los aliados y socios.

Energy security plays an important role in our common security:  Brussels Summit Declaration, 2018.

Ten years ago, at their 2008 Summit in Bucharest, NATO Allies agreed their first report on NATO’s role in energy security. Negotiating this confidential paper, which listed major principles as well as key areas of engagement, was challenging.

No one doubted that energy developments could have major security implications for Allies and the Alliance. After all, in particular for some of NATO’s new members that were burdened with serious energy vulnerabilities, energy security was a question of national security. However, given that NATO was not an energy institution, Allies struggled to define NATO’s role in an area that was largely non-military in nature, featured many institutional players and, above all, remained mostly a national responsibility. Accordingly, the Allies defined a broad political framework, yet without suggesting a concrete energy security agenda for the Alliance.

Today, a decade later, the caution that characterised NATO’s initial steps in energy security has given way to a more confident approach. Major changes in the international security environment and energy landscape have brought increased strategic attention to the issue, resulting in a pragmatic energy security agenda that provides tangible value for Allies and partner countries.

How has this change come about?

Global energy developments

The most important driver for NATO’s energy agenda has been the evolution of the global energy landscape. Russia has continued to use energy as part of its foreign policy and, in the case of Ukraine, also demonstrated that energy is part of Moscow’s hybrid warfare toolbox.

Cyber threats have been growing, with the energy sector a major target.

Attacks on NATO fuel convoys in Afghanistan have highlighted the importance of assuring energy supplies to military operations.

Terrorist attacks against energy infrastructure, notably in Northern Africa and the Middle East, have continued, with an average of about 350 incidents per year.

Piracy has remained a threat to tankers carrying oil from the Gulf region through the Indian Ocean – a challenge that NATO’s counter-piracy operation Ocean Shield helped to address.

Other threats to energy infrastructure have been posed by disasters, such as the 2010 Pakistan floods and the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011.

Finally, the rise of “unconventionals” – such as shale oil and gas – has revolutionised the global energy landscape, with potentially massive ramifications for traditional producers.

A coherent agenda

With all these developments bringing home the close link between energy and security, NATO has had its work cut out for it. While the classified Bucharest report remained the overarching guideline for NATO’s role in energy security, the 2010 Strategic Concept, as well as the Progress Reports presented to NATO Heads of State and Government at each NATO Summit, have provided additional guidance and also sketched out a way ahead. This has allowed NATO to develop an unclassified energy security narrative that it could also promote publicly.

To simplify an otherwise complex story, NATO has divided its role into three areas:

    • Raising awareness includes intelligence-sharing on energy development, political consultations among Allies, as well as among Allies and partners, and exchanges with outside experts.
    • Supporting the protection of critical energy infrastructure is mainly about sharing best practices among experts, organising training courses, and inserting energy-related scenarios into exercises.
    • Enhancing energy efficiency in the military includes the sharing of national best practices, demonstrations of energy-efficient equipment, and the development of military energy efficiency standards.

Building a stakeholder community

To better define NATO’s role in energy security and to avoid duplicating the work of others, it has been important to reach out to other energy players. NATO has established working-level contacts with the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Directorate-General for Energy of the European Commission, and experts from academia and the private sector. To enhance energy efficiency in the military, the stakeholder community has also included military engineers and defence companies. This outreach, along with enhanced public diplomacy activities, has made NATO’s role in energy security both clearer and more widely known.

The accreditation of the NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence (COE) in Lithuania in 2012 brought another powerful player into the equation. The COE, which has meanwhile expanded to include 11 member nations, provides analysis and training across the entire spectrum of NATO’s energy security agenda and serves as a unique asset for supporting and promoting NATO’s energy security agenda.

NATO’s two Strategic Commands have also become interested in the issue, contributing with expertise as well as with support on education and training.

Reaching the strategic level

Another major goal was reached in 2014, when the North Atlantic Council (NAC) held an informal meeting with energy experts. These discussions, featuring representatives of the IEA, the European Commission and the US State Department, turned out to be so insightful that Allies decided to turn the “Energy NAC” into an annual event. Energy security had arrived at the strategic level.

A year later the first Energy Security Strategic Awareness Course took place at the NATO School in Oberammergau. With participants from over 20 Allies and partner countries, the course covered a broad spectrum of energy challenges, ranging from the geopolitics of oil and gas to enhancing the energy efficiency of armed forces. Supported by NATO’s Strategic Commands, the COE and the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, it has now become an annual event and a model for courses elsewhere.

Enhancing partnerships

NATO’s evolving role in energy security has attracted the interest of several partner countries, notably energy producers such as Azerbaijan and Algeria and transit countries such as Georgia and Ukraine.

Consequently, NATO has organised various expert workshops on, for example, exchanging best practices on the protection of critical energy infrastructure, often with the support of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme.

In February 2018, NATO held its first energy security course at the newly created NATO-Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Regional Cooperation Centre in Kuwait. And several partner countries, notably Ukraine, briefed Allies on their respective energy situation.

Hybrid war and collective defence

Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014 and its low-level war against Ukraine have added an important new dimension to NATO’s energy agenda: the linkage between energy and hybrid warfare. To destabilise Ukraine, Russia had increased the gas price, supported separatists with energy deliveries and expropriated Ukrainian energy assets in and around Crimea. To support Ukraine, the Energy Security COE and various other players held a major table-top exercise in Kyiv in October 2017, centred on protecting the country’s electrical grid against cyber attacks.

As NATO has refocused its efforts on bolstering the collective defence of its eastern member states, the energy question has posed itself in yet another light: meeting the energy challenges of a military strategy that relies on major reinforcements. To come to grips with this new challenge, military energy requirements have been analysed, and NATO has started to integrate energy considerations into some of its exercises.

The “smart energy” agenda, which aims to enhance energy efficiency in the military, has also made progress: energy-related questions have been inserted into the NATO Defence Planning Process, as a prerequisite for setting interoperability standards. Moreover, the Energy Security COE hosts a biennial event to explore “Innovative Energy Solutions for Military Application” (see IESMA 2018).

The way ahead

The years ahead will see an even stronger focus on education and training, notably with partner countries. More energy-related scenarios will be inserted into NATO exercises, and table-top exercises with Allies and partners are likely to increase in number as well as complexity.

A particular new focus of NATO’s energy-related work will be enhancing the resilience of Allies. Since resilient energy supplies are vital for collective defence, NATO support for Allies in this area is likely to increase. It is also fair to assume that addressing cyber threats to energy infrastructure will gain in importance. While the protection of energy infrastructure remains a national responsibility, NATO’s education and training establishments offer many opportunities – for Allies and partners alike – to get a firm grasp on these challenges.

NATO’s relations with other actors, from the IEA to the private energy sector, will also deepen, allowing NATO to benefit from outside expertise. The number of briefings to the NAC by outside experts is also likely to increase.

Finally, there is a need for more regular consultations among Allies on energy security developments and their security implications. The Brussels Summit Declaration states: “… it is essential to ensure that the members of the Alliance are not vulnerable to political or coercive manipulation of energy, which constitutes a potential threat”. Given Russia’s use of energy as part of its hybrid threats towards Ukraine, it would seem that NATO Allies, many of which are customers of Russian gas and oil, might have a lot to discuss.

Julijus Grubliauskas and Michael Rühle work in the Energy Security Section of NATO’s Emerging Security Challenges Division. The views expressed are their own.

What is published in NATO Review does not necessarily represent the official position or policy of member governments, or of NATO.

NATO Review 26.07.2018

Joint Statement on the Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan

 

  1. We, the Heads of State and Government of the nations contributing to the Resolute Support Mission, and the President of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, met today in Brussels to reaffirm our shared commitment to Afghanistan’s long-term security and stability. The people of Afghanistan demand peace and we are encouraged by the momentum building in that direction. We remain united in our commitment to help Afghanistan attain it.
  2. We pay tribute to the sacrifice and resilience of the Afghan people who have wanted peace for many years, and to the men and women serving in the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces1 and in the Resolute Support Mission. We honour all those who have lost their lives or have been wounded in support of a better future for Afghanistan that is free from terrorism.
  3. Our shared aim remains a stable and secure Afghanistan that will never again serve as a safe haven for terrorists who threaten our shared security. Allies and Operational Partners reaffirm their commitment to the Resolute Support Mission, which trains, advises and assists the Afghan forces at the invitation of the Afghan government and with the support of the International Community as noted in UN Security Council Resolution 2189. Effective, professional, and self-sustaining Afghan forces will be better able to provide security for the country, create the conditions for a negotiated resolution of the conflict through an Afghan-led and Afghan-owned peace process, and demonstrate to the Taliban that it cannot prevail through force. We welcome the progress the Afghan security institutions are making as a result of Resolute Support’s capacity-building efforts, and the Afghan-led institutional reforms which are resulting in strengthened professionalism and increased effectiveness on the battlefield. We reiterate our support for the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces Roadmap.
  4. A political solution to the conflict with the Taliban, based on national consensus, will be essential in order to achieve sustainable stability and security. NATO Allies and Operational Partners welcome the Afghan government’s unprecedented offer of unconditional peace talks to the Taliban. We fully support the Afghan government’s aim of reaching an inclusive peace agreement with the Taliban, and note with particular appreciation the outcomes of the Kabul Process for Peace and Security Cooperation conference in Afghanistan on 28 February, and the Tashkent Conference on Afghanistan held on 26-27 March. We also commend the Afghan government’s commitment to demonstrate the benefits of peace, and its determination to advance the peace process and reduce violence through its announcement of a unilateral cease-fire in June. We note that the Taliban participated in the Eid al-Fitr cease-fire. Their leadership’s rejection of the extension proposed by the Afghan government will only result in harm to innocent Afghan citizens.
  5. We reiterate our call to the Taliban to engage credibly in the Afghan-led and Afghan-owned peace process and stress that this is the only pathway to a sustainable resolution of the conflict. NATO Allies and Operational Partners will respect and support a negotiated and durable political settlement led by Afghans which ends violence, cuts ties to terrorism and protects the human rights of all Afghan citizens, notably those of women and children. We also support the Afghan government’s intention to address all contested issues between the parties, including those relating to the future military role of the international community in Afghanistan.
  6. NATO Allies and Operational Partners strongly support the Afghan government’s determination to eliminate the threat of terrorism in all its forms, including that posed by ISIS/Daesh affiliates and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. The improvements to the Afghan forces will bolster their ability to combat those terrorist groups that pose a threat to us all.
  7. We reiterate the importance of good and inclusive governance, institution building, as well as social and economic development. The upcoming Geneva ministerial conference on Afghanistan in November 2018 will be an important opportunity to review the progress achieved, particularly the Afghan government’s commitment to accountability and reforms, and to underscore the International Community’s continued commitment to development assistance.
  8. A stable Afghanistan is in our interest and that of the entire region. Regional actors have a significant role to play in achieving peace and stabilisation in Afghanistan by fully supporting a negotiated political solution, by not lending any form of support to the insurgency, by improving conditions for Afghan economic development, and by working with the Afghan government to combat terrorism. We encourage Pakistan to continue to act on its stated support for a political solution to the conflict, to close terrorist sanctuaries and to work to prevent terrorist financial flows and cross-border attacks, including by working with its neighbours. In this regard, we welcome the finalisation of the Afghanistan-Pakistan Action Plan for Peace and Solidarity. We call on regional actors to contribute to regional stability by fully supporting an Afghan-led and Afghan-owned peace process. NATO Allies and Partners will continue to engage constructively at the regional level.
  9. We welcome Qatar and the United Arab Emirates who are joining the Resolute Support Mission and we encourage other interested countries to contribute. This reflects the broad and continuing support by the International Community for Afghanistan’s stability, also including through the International Contact Group.
  10. NATO Allies and Operational Partners have increased force-levels to maximise theability to train, advise and assist the Afghan forces, and we announce today that we have committed to:
    • sustain the non-combat Resolute Support Mission that delivers training, advice and assistance to the Afghan security institutions and forces until conditions indicate a change in the mission is appropriate;
    • extend financial sustainment of the Afghan forces through 2024; and
    • make further progress on developing our political and practical partnership with Afghanistan, including through the Enduring Partnership.
  11. For its part Afghanistan, with the continued support of NATO Allies and Operational Partners, building on progress already made, commits to:
    • further strengthen the Afghan security institutions and forces, ensuring that they: provide security for the Afghan people; operate under effective civilian leadership complying in full with international humanitarian law; respect human rights; and act in accordance with the Afghan constitution and the rule of law;
    • continue to combat corruption, including in security structures as described in the roadmap as well as other government structures;
    • demonstrate further progress on governmental reforms such as merit-based promotion and fulfill agreed conditions related to financial support; and promote transparency, accountability and inclusivity;
    • organize and hold credible, free, fair, and inclusive parliamentary elections in 2018 and presidential elections in 2019 and vigorously address remaining organizational challenges with full respect to the independence of electoral institutions;
    • steadily increase its share of funding for the Afghan forces in furtherance of the commitments made at the Chicago Summit with the aim of attaining self-sufficiency, while recognizing that this will take some time to achieve;
    • countering narcotics trafficking;
    • promote job creation, and improve economic opportunities and service delivery to Afghan citizens;
    • build on recent efforts to empower women to participate fully in all aspects of Afghan society, including in the Afghan forces, as well as in political processes, including peace and reconciliation, and abide by commitments to fully implement Afghanistan’s National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325;
    • take further steps to protect children from the damaging effects of armed conflict and from violations of their rights, as required by UNSCR 1612 and other relevant UN Security Council resolutions, as well as ensuring the protection of civilians.
  12. Further progress on the commitments outlined above will curb violence, improve economic prospects, help set social, security and economic conditions for long-term stability and have an important impact on migration. We are encouraged by progress in Afghanistan and we will not waver in our support to the development of Afghan forces that can keep the country stable, secure, and safe from the threat of terrorism.  As we do that work, we look forward to the initiation of an inclusive,negotiated peace agreement with the Taliban that will be a victory for all Afghans.
  1. Referred to hereafter as ‘Afghan forces’.