El retorno de la gran coalición europea CARLOS CARNICERO URABAYEN

Por CARLOS CARNICERO URABAYEN para Siete Días en Política Exterior de 13.09.2018.

En realidad, nunca se ha marchado, pero lleva tiempo haciendo aguas. Mermada. Impotente. Con dudas sobre si puede o no resistir la brutal embestida electoral e ideológica de los ultras europeos. Llámenle centro. Consenso liberal. Gran coalición. Élite. Tecnocracia. O simplemente fuerzas hegemónicas de la integración europea (en apuros).

La noticia de esta semana no es el merecido castigo a Viktor Orbán, sino la ruptura del centro-derecha europeo con la extrema derecha.

Ha sido una semana extraordinariamente importante para el futuro del continente. Las dudas sobre cómo frenar a los ultras no se han resuelto, pero se ha hecho un poco más claro el camino. Habrá pulso entre partidarios y enemigos de la Unión en la primavera próxima, cuando se celebren las elecciones europeas. Y el Partido Popular Europeo se ha decantado –veremos su nivel de cohesión– por pertenecer al primer grupo. La resaca del resultado electoral sueco, con la extrema derecha en el 17%, ha reforzado el estado de alarma.

13.09.2018. Siete Días en Política Exterior. Leer más

Radicalismo e Islamofobia en Europa: problemas a tener muy en cuenta

NOTA DE LA REDACCIÓN

En Europa viven en la actualidad millones de musulmanes. Muchos de ellos se han adaptado perfectamente a las normas de convivencia que rigen la sociedad europea desde hace cientos de años. Por su parte los europeos han efectuado un esfuerzo para que la asimilación de dicha población, llegada en poco años, produzca los menores roces posibles, habilitándose sus lugares de culto y posibilitando que los niños musulmanes que los deseen puedan profundizar su religión en la escuelas a las que van.

Pero dentro de toda esta masa de inmigración, hay muchos, huidos de sus países por causas extrañas, desean que Europa les permita mantener, no solo su propia forma de vida, sino incluso su propia legislación civil y penal, dentro de los miembros de su comunidad.

Esto esta provocando radicalismo de musulmanes que ven en todo Occidente y por supuesto al Cristianismo, como le origen de sus males, por los que su objetivo es destruirlos, y por otra parte un sentimiento de islamofobia entre los propios europeos, aprovechado por partidos extremistas, que claman por la pérdida de la identidad europea.

Los poderes públicos y las Iglesias Cristiana e Islámica deben actuar e intentar que la mezcla cultural y religiosa que se avecina y a la que estamos abocados, se produzca sin traumas de ningún tipo y que dentro de cien años o más. Europa siga siendo un ejemplo de convivencia en paz

La Paz de Westfalia se refiere a dos tratados que pusieron fin a la “Guerra de los Treinta años”, acordándose, entre otras cuestiones, que nunca debería existir un enfrentamiento por motivos religiosos. Ese debe ser el espíritu del futuro

Traeremos en esta columna, los artículos y trabajos más relevantes sobre estos temas.

Observatorio de la islamofobia en los medios 

EL ESPAÑOL 20.07.2018. Islamofobia en España El autor reflexiona sobre los comportamientos de los españoles en relación a esa ‘nebulosa’ en la que incluimos a los ciudadanos de países árabes y países islámicos. Por Luis Castellví Laukamp

EL ESPAÑOL 3.08.2018: La prohibición del burka en Dinamarca reactiva el debate sobre la islamofobia en Europa Los países que han prohibido los velos argumentan que están cuidando sus ciudades y cultura, mientras que sus críticos los acusan de atentar contra la libertad religiosa de los musulmanes.

EL MATINAL. 08.08.2018. Una web islámica anima a los musulmanes a venir a España y vivir de las ayudas públicas.Cita a Barcelona donde Ada Colau rehabilita 31.000 viviendas para inmigrantes Realiza un llamamiento para recuperar Al-Andalus y se detallan las facilidades de las comunidades autónomas para la obtención de trabajo, educación y derecho a voto Una comunidad de musulmanes está realizando un llamamiento a través de una página web para que los islamistas regresen a Al-Andalus, como denominan a España. Recuerdan que éste fue su país y que debe ser recuperado para el Islam.

 

 

Rusia, EE.UU., China y la OTAN en 04.08.2018

 

Rusia va a otro nivel con sus armas respecto a EEUU 

Posted on: Monday 30 July 2018 — 13:29

Lamentablemente los Estados Unidos no puede igualarse al mismo nivel que Rusia ha alcanzado en los últimos años con respecto a las nuevas armas que han logrado desarrollar, así lo afirma el periodista Marco Maier en su artículo para la revista Contra Magazin.

“El Kremlin demostró a la Casa Blanca que se pueden crear equipos militares modernos y competitivos sin utilizar presupuestos militares extremadamente inflados”, destaca Maier.

Según ha explicado el columnista, el aumento de los gastos mili… Sigue leyendo →

El destructor USS Winston S. Churchill en Estonia 

Posted on: Sunday 29 July 2018 — 19:28

Nada más y nada menos que el destructor USS Winston S. Churchill de la Marina de Guerra americano ha llegado al puerto de Muuga, situado a 13 km de la ciudad de Tallin, aseveró James D. Melville, embajador de Estados Unidos en Estonia.

“El arribo de este buque a Estonia es otro ejemplo de la importancia que tienen la estabilidad regional, el apoyo a los aliados y la cooperación entre las fuerzas”, dijo el embajador citado por el servicio de prensa de la embajada.

Por otra parte Melville ha de… Sigue leyendo

China preparada para el S-400 de Rusia  

Posted on: Sunday 29 July 2018 — 13:30

Próximamente en las siguientes semanas, la potencia asiática, China, va a realizar pruebas al novedoso sistema de defensa aérea ruso s-400, para hacer un estudio más profundo de sus capacidades al momento de derribar misiles balísticos.

La revista de Estados Unidos “the Diplomat”, aseguró este viernes tras recibir la totalidad de los componentes de la primera unidad de los S-400 rusos, el Ejército de China ya tiene pensado probar este sistema de armamento en un escenario simulado en el cual deb… Sigue leyendo

Incidentes militares entre Rusia y EEUU ¿Pueden evitarse? 

Posted on: Saturday 28 July 2018 — 21:55

Alexandr Grushkó, viceministro de relaciones exteriores de Rusia, ha debatido con varios expertos de Estados Unidos en control de armas las posibilidades de evitar incidentes militares, así como la situación en cuanto al acuerdo START y el Tratado de Fuerzas Nucleares de Alcance Intermedio (INF), informó la Cancillería rusa.

“Tuvo lugar un intercambio de puntos de vista sobre temas de actualidad relacionados con la estabilidad estratégica, fijando la atención en el análisis de la situación en to… Sigue leyendo

Infraestructura Crítica, sector de la Energía: La Seguridad Energética

Seguridad energética: una preocupación fundamental para los aliados y socios.

Energy security plays an important role in our common security:  Brussels Summit Declaration, 2018.

Ten years ago, at their 2008 Summit in Bucharest, NATO Allies agreed their first report on NATO’s role in energy security. Negotiating this confidential paper, which listed major principles as well as key areas of engagement, was challenging.

No one doubted that energy developments could have major security implications for Allies and the Alliance. After all, in particular for some of NATO’s new members that were burdened with serious energy vulnerabilities, energy security was a question of national security. However, given that NATO was not an energy institution, Allies struggled to define NATO’s role in an area that was largely non-military in nature, featured many institutional players and, above all, remained mostly a national responsibility. Accordingly, the Allies defined a broad political framework, yet without suggesting a concrete energy security agenda for the Alliance.

Today, a decade later, the caution that characterised NATO’s initial steps in energy security has given way to a more confident approach. Major changes in the international security environment and energy landscape have brought increased strategic attention to the issue, resulting in a pragmatic energy security agenda that provides tangible value for Allies and partner countries.

How has this change come about?

Global energy developments

The most important driver for NATO’s energy agenda has been the evolution of the global energy landscape. Russia has continued to use energy as part of its foreign policy and, in the case of Ukraine, also demonstrated that energy is part of Moscow’s hybrid warfare toolbox.

Cyber threats have been growing, with the energy sector a major target.

Attacks on NATO fuel convoys in Afghanistan have highlighted the importance of assuring energy supplies to military operations.

Terrorist attacks against energy infrastructure, notably in Northern Africa and the Middle East, have continued, with an average of about 350 incidents per year.

Piracy has remained a threat to tankers carrying oil from the Gulf region through the Indian Ocean – a challenge that NATO’s counter-piracy operation Ocean Shield helped to address.

Other threats to energy infrastructure have been posed by disasters, such as the 2010 Pakistan floods and the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011.

Finally, the rise of “unconventionals” – such as shale oil and gas – has revolutionised the global energy landscape, with potentially massive ramifications for traditional producers.

A coherent agenda

With all these developments bringing home the close link between energy and security, NATO has had its work cut out for it. While the classified Bucharest report remained the overarching guideline for NATO’s role in energy security, the 2010 Strategic Concept, as well as the Progress Reports presented to NATO Heads of State and Government at each NATO Summit, have provided additional guidance and also sketched out a way ahead. This has allowed NATO to develop an unclassified energy security narrative that it could also promote publicly.

To simplify an otherwise complex story, NATO has divided its role into three areas:

    • Raising awareness includes intelligence-sharing on energy development, political consultations among Allies, as well as among Allies and partners, and exchanges with outside experts.
    • Supporting the protection of critical energy infrastructure is mainly about sharing best practices among experts, organising training courses, and inserting energy-related scenarios into exercises.
    • Enhancing energy efficiency in the military includes the sharing of national best practices, demonstrations of energy-efficient equipment, and the development of military energy efficiency standards.

Building a stakeholder community

To better define NATO’s role in energy security and to avoid duplicating the work of others, it has been important to reach out to other energy players. NATO has established working-level contacts with the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Directorate-General for Energy of the European Commission, and experts from academia and the private sector. To enhance energy efficiency in the military, the stakeholder community has also included military engineers and defence companies. This outreach, along with enhanced public diplomacy activities, has made NATO’s role in energy security both clearer and more widely known.

The accreditation of the NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence (COE) in Lithuania in 2012 brought another powerful player into the equation. The COE, which has meanwhile expanded to include 11 member nations, provides analysis and training across the entire spectrum of NATO’s energy security agenda and serves as a unique asset for supporting and promoting NATO’s energy security agenda.

NATO’s two Strategic Commands have also become interested in the issue, contributing with expertise as well as with support on education and training.

Reaching the strategic level

Another major goal was reached in 2014, when the North Atlantic Council (NAC) held an informal meeting with energy experts. These discussions, featuring representatives of the IEA, the European Commission and the US State Department, turned out to be so insightful that Allies decided to turn the “Energy NAC” into an annual event. Energy security had arrived at the strategic level.

A year later the first Energy Security Strategic Awareness Course took place at the NATO School in Oberammergau. With participants from over 20 Allies and partner countries, the course covered a broad spectrum of energy challenges, ranging from the geopolitics of oil and gas to enhancing the energy efficiency of armed forces. Supported by NATO’s Strategic Commands, the COE and the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, it has now become an annual event and a model for courses elsewhere.

Enhancing partnerships

NATO’s evolving role in energy security has attracted the interest of several partner countries, notably energy producers such as Azerbaijan and Algeria and transit countries such as Georgia and Ukraine.

Consequently, NATO has organised various expert workshops on, for example, exchanging best practices on the protection of critical energy infrastructure, often with the support of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme.

In February 2018, NATO held its first energy security course at the newly created NATO-Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Regional Cooperation Centre in Kuwait. And several partner countries, notably Ukraine, briefed Allies on their respective energy situation.

Hybrid war and collective defence

Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014 and its low-level war against Ukraine have added an important new dimension to NATO’s energy agenda: the linkage between energy and hybrid warfare. To destabilise Ukraine, Russia had increased the gas price, supported separatists with energy deliveries and expropriated Ukrainian energy assets in and around Crimea. To support Ukraine, the Energy Security COE and various other players held a major table-top exercise in Kyiv in October 2017, centred on protecting the country’s electrical grid against cyber attacks.

As NATO has refocused its efforts on bolstering the collective defence of its eastern member states, the energy question has posed itself in yet another light: meeting the energy challenges of a military strategy that relies on major reinforcements. To come to grips with this new challenge, military energy requirements have been analysed, and NATO has started to integrate energy considerations into some of its exercises.

The “smart energy” agenda, which aims to enhance energy efficiency in the military, has also made progress: energy-related questions have been inserted into the NATO Defence Planning Process, as a prerequisite for setting interoperability standards. Moreover, the Energy Security COE hosts a biennial event to explore “Innovative Energy Solutions for Military Application” (see IESMA 2018).

The way ahead

The years ahead will see an even stronger focus on education and training, notably with partner countries. More energy-related scenarios will be inserted into NATO exercises, and table-top exercises with Allies and partners are likely to increase in number as well as complexity.

A particular new focus of NATO’s energy-related work will be enhancing the resilience of Allies. Since resilient energy supplies are vital for collective defence, NATO support for Allies in this area is likely to increase. It is also fair to assume that addressing cyber threats to energy infrastructure will gain in importance. While the protection of energy infrastructure remains a national responsibility, NATO’s education and training establishments offer many opportunities – for Allies and partners alike – to get a firm grasp on these challenges.

NATO’s relations with other actors, from the IEA to the private energy sector, will also deepen, allowing NATO to benefit from outside expertise. The number of briefings to the NAC by outside experts is also likely to increase.

Finally, there is a need for more regular consultations among Allies on energy security developments and their security implications. The Brussels Summit Declaration states: “… it is essential to ensure that the members of the Alliance are not vulnerable to political or coercive manipulation of energy, which constitutes a potential threat”. Given Russia’s use of energy as part of its hybrid threats towards Ukraine, it would seem that NATO Allies, many of which are customers of Russian gas and oil, might have a lot to discuss.

Julijus Grubliauskas and Michael Rühle work in the Energy Security Section of NATO’s Emerging Security Challenges Division. The views expressed are their own.

What is published in NATO Review does not necessarily represent the official position or policy of member governments, or of NATO.

NATO Review 26.07.2018

Los grandes desafíos de la Unión Europea en la actualidad

Los grandes desafíos económicos de la Unión Europea

Para el recuerdo queda la firma del Tratado de Roma en 1957, el gran acuerdo que supuso el génesis de lo que hoy conocemos como Unión Europea. Desde entonces, Europa ha ido avanzando en la integración económica, el camino no ha sido fácil, pero la unión económica, monetaria y política continúa adelante pese a las dificultades. Así pues, al mirar al horizonte se nos plantea una pregunta: ¿Cuáles son los desafíos económicos que deberá afrontar la Unión Europea? Leer más.

Los retos de la Política Agraria Común

El sector primario es particularmente vulnerable, de ahí que sea necesario que la Unión Europea busque garantizar el abastecimiento de alimentos de calidad y a precios razonables a un mercado que supone unos 500 millones de consumidores. Por ello, a través de la Política Agraria Común (PAC), la Unión Europea busca una relación de cooperación con los agricultores. Sin embargo, la financiación, el cambio climático, el éxodo rural y el desarrollo sostenible suponen grandes desafíos que deben afrontar las políticas agrarias europeas. Leer más.